Artisans En Bois D Olivier by Mediterranean Interiors

Marcus Mosiah Garvey Jr. (17 August 1887 – 10 June 1940) was a Jamaican political activist. He was the founder and first President-General of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL, commonly known as UNIA), through which he declared himself Provisional President of Africa. Ideologically a black nationalist and Pan-Africanist, his ideas came to be known as Garveyism. Garvey was born into a moderately prosperous Afro-Jamaican family in Saint Ann's Bay and was apprenticed into the print trade as a teenager. Working in Kingston, he got involved in trade unionism before living briefly in Costa Rica, Panama, and England. On returning to Jamaica, he founded the UNIA in 1914. In 1916, he moved to the United States and established a UNIA branch in New York City's Harlem district. Emphasising unity between Africans and the African diaspora, he campaigned for an end to European colonial rule in Africa and advocated the political unification of the continent. He envisioned a unified Africa as a one-party state, governed by himself, that would enact laws to ensure black racial purity. Although he never visited the continent, he was committed to the Back-to-Africa movement, arguing that part of the diaspora should migrate there. Garveyist ideas became increasingly popular and the UNIA grew in membership. His black separatist views —and his relationship with white racists like the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) in the interest of advancing their shared goal of racial separatism— caused a division between Garvey and other prominent African-American civil rights activists such as W. E. B. Du Bois who promoted racial integration. Believing that black people needed to be financially independent from white-dominated societies, Garvey launched various businesses in the U.S., including the Negro Factories Corporation and Negro World newspaper. In 1919, he became President of the Black Star Line shipping and passenger company, designed to forge a link between North America and Africa and facilitate African-American migration to Liberia. In 1923 Garvey was convicted of mail fraud for selling the company's stock and he was imprisoned in the United States Penitentiary, Atlanta for nearly two years. Many commentators have argued that the trial was politically motivated; Garvey blamed Jewish people, claiming that they were prejudiced against him because of his links to the KKK. After his sentence was commuted by U.S. president Calvin Coolidge, he was deported to Jamaica in 1927. Settling in Kingston with his wife Amy Jacques, Garvey established the People's Political Party in 1929, briefly serving as a city councillor. With the UNIA in increasing financial difficulty, he relocated to London in 1935, where his anti-socialist stance distanced him from many of the city's black activists. He died there in 1940, and in 1964 his body was returned to Jamaica for reburial in Kingston's National Heroes Park. Garvey was a controversial figure. Some in the African diasporic community regarded him as a pretentious demagogue and they were highly critical of his collaboration with white supremacists, his violent rhetoric and his prejudice against mixed-race people and Jews. He received praise for encouraging a sense of pride and self-worth among Africans and the African diaspora amid widespread poverty, discrimination and colonialism. In Jamaica he is widely regarded as a national hero. His ideas exerted a considerable influence on such movements as Rastafari, the Nation of Islam and the Black Power Movement.

Article Title : Marcus Garvey
Article Snippet :NAACP leader W. E. B. Du Bois, and in one issue of the Negro World called him a "reactionary under [the] pay of white men". Du Bois generally tried to ignore
Article Title : Alexis de Tocqueville
Article Snippet :whose turbulent and restless spirit endangered the infant colony. [...] Artisans and agriculturalists arrived afterwards[,] [...] hardly in any respect
Article Title : Chantilly, Oise
Article Snippet :2006, retrieved 20 July 2009 Population en historique depuis 1968, INSEE Michel Bouchet (2004), "Le Quartier du Bois Saint-Denis d'hier à aujourd'hui", Études
Article Title : Haiti
Article Snippet :and many intermarried within their community. They frequently worked as artisans and tradesmen, and began to own some property, including slaves of their
Article Title : Atlantic slave trade
Article Snippet :Washington Press. pp. XXVI. ISBN 978-0-295-98601-2. Stephen D. Behrendt, W. E. B. Du Bois Institute for African and African-American Research, Harvard
Article Title : Bordeaux
Article Snippet :essayist Montesquieu (1689–1755), man of letters and political philosopher Olivier Mony (1966–), writer and literary critic Étienne Marie Antoine Champion
Article Title : History of Paris
Article Snippet :four cardinal points of the compass around the city; the Bois de Boulogne to the west; the Bois de Vincennes to the east; the Parc des Buttes-Chaumont to
Article Title : French Americans
Article Snippet :acquire education, skills (many in New Orleans worked as craftsmen and artisans), businesses and property. They were overwhelmingly Catholic, spoke Colonial
Article Title : Louvre Palace
Article Snippet :floor of the Grande Galerie hosted a number of shops in which artists and artisans peddled their creations. They were closed by order of Napoleon. Aside from
Article Title : Ein Karem
Article Snippet :Academy of Sciences and Humanities. ISBN 965-208-107-8. Olivier Rota, « L'exode arabe d'Eïn-Kerem en 1948. La relation des événements par les sœurs de Notre-Dame

Our Partners

Links to Resources on the Web

Le Film Les Chiens réalisé par Julie Stunault

Site Map

Home Page

Sunday 03 Mar 2024 19:33:57